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Power Conversion / Motor Control

低压降(LDO)稳压器之理想与现实 

 由 Marek Bek 发布 - 2018-01-07

稳压器在想要从不稳定或可变的电源中获得稳定电源电压的应用至关重要。这类电源包括逐渐放电式的电池或整流后的交流电压等。而对开关稳压器产生的噪声或残留交流纹波较敏感的应用,包括射频收发器、Wi-Fi模块和光学图像传感器,采用线性稳压器来可最大限度地减少整个系统的错误和误差。

能够在电源输入和输出端之间保持低压差的线性稳压器通常称为低压降(LDO)稳压器。其基本特点是无论输出电流、输入电压、热漂移或工作寿命(老化)如何变化,都能保持恒定的输出电压。这些是理想条件,但现实世界中的情况却有些不同。由于LDO输出电压并非绝对稳定,因此主要会影响以下操作功能:

a)由于有限的控制回路速度,负载电流的快速变化会导致输出电压的变化。有时内部调节回路无法对电流的快速变化(由于时间延迟)作出反应,就会导致通常约为几十毫伏(mV)的下冲/过冲。

b)输入电压的快速变化(通常是由DC-DC转换器的输出电压纹波引起的)无法通过控制回路完全过滤,于是输入电压的变化会一定程度地反映在输出电压中,该参数称为电源抑制比(PSRR),且通常是频变参数。一些制造商标示的PSRR为负数,有些则为正数。一般而言,PSRR绝对值越高,从输入到输出的传输干扰信号就越少。通常情况下,受到干扰的输入电压会以mV或更低的单位级别传输至输出端。相似地,输入电压的快速变化(即“线路瞬态响应”)可发生于LDO输出端。

c)半导体结构自身会产生固有的噪声,主要是由自由原子与基础材料晶体结构碰撞而引起。由于固有噪声是一种半导体中与电流传导原理相关的物理现象,因此可以通过一些技术来抑制,但是不可能将其彻底去除。现代LDO的输出噪声可以达到数以百计的微伏(uV)甚至更小,但是顶级LDO产生的噪声就会达到微伏(uV)单位。

d)其他影响还包括输入电压的一个缓慢变化及其对线路调整率的影响、负载电流的一个缓慢变化及其对负载调整率、导热系数和长期稳定性的影响。

在现实世界中,必须综合考量所有这些影响及其作用,以实现输出电压的稳定和精确。因此,有必要仔细考量上述的情况可能关乎一个特定应用。例如对于需要最佳图像质量的摄像机应用,LDO对负载电流变化的动态响应就是最为重要的。当噪声值低于100 uVrms且PSRR值为常规水平(高于50 dB)时,对图像质量的影响就微不足道。

 

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