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汽车

汽车48 V电源,终成现实? 

 由 Deres Eshete 发布 - 2017-02-13 21:32:10.0

减排标准结合汽车中增加的电子含量,特别是在大功率应用中如主动悬挂、再生制动和各种电机和泵正推动考虑增添更高压的12 V轨的需要。几十年来,汽车行业一直在考虑这个更高的电压节点,一开始在90年代提出了42 V,最终定为48V系统。48V轨提供了足够的保护频带以避免60V冲击阈值,无需额外的保护、橙色的电缆/连接和专用辅助设备用于维护和发生事故的情况。

双12/48V架构主要旨在优化如今现有的轻度和微混合技术,如启停和再生制动。48V系统使目前由诸如冷却组件和减摇系统等机械带驱动的高功耗应用电气化。未来的目标是改善精心挑选的已经电气化的现有系统,如电动助力转向(EPS)。这些改进可以包括简化电气系统,以及简化装配技术,和降低整体系统成本。平均估计48V轻度混合动力系统将提供减少10-20%的CO2排放。而成本是添加到系统中,48V系统估计比全混合动力和电动汽车便宜约 50%,提供一个很好的折中,以在2020年前满足汽车平均二氧化碳排放量低于95克/公里的严格标准。汽车制造商正在考虑几种48V系统配置,目前由从P0至P4的Px术语表示,P0如下图所示,BSG和其余的Px在传动系统/轴上增加电机。

简化的48 V架构– P0系统

为制备12/48 V双电源架构系统用于汽车中,安森美半导体正着手大量48V系统方案,针对12/48 V DC -DC转换器以及增加48V负载数的方案。我们的80 / 100 V MOSFET采用各种不同的分力封装,如标准的晶体管外形封装(TO)以及小的5x6mm扁平引脚封装,用于紧凑和高效的设计(NVMFS系列和功率沟槽技术MOSFET)。安森美半导体还提供MOSFET模块如APM19(80 V 135 AFTCO3V85A1)用于48V DC-DC和APM17(80 V 540 AFAM08A50DT1)用于BSG起动发电机应用。也可提供裸片方案供客户构建特定模块。此外,我们有驱动器(NCV5183和FANxx系列),我们的80V NCV40x系列共模范围(CMR)电流检测放大器适用于48V网。安森美半导体也致力于新一代方案,针对48V系统之保护采用电子保险丝(eFuse)技术,以及省重/省空间采用宽带隙方案氮化镓(GaN)以减少DC-DC转换器。

开发48V系统面临的挑战存在于多种形式,如标准化、系统定义扩展和关注的特定区域如电弧/融合。LV148/VDA320存在48V电流规格,然而,一个更广泛的全球标准,包括来自各个地区和OEM的建议和要求,将促进加速发展和验收系统及组件用于汽车48V系统。ISO已发起ISO21780标准化小组,负责开发这样一个规格。另一个问题是融合/电弧,48伏大功率负载数的增加,同时需要使用配电以监控电流路径电子(除了安全保险丝的部署),以至爬电短路可被检测到和在发生故障时关断。此外,必须确保48伏和12伏系统在任何时候都保持分离。12 / 48V短路会对所有12V控制单元和负载造成相当大的损害。因此,电弧和接地的损耗是构成目前12/48V双电源系统用于汽车的挑战的首要问题。虽然挑战还未解决,但最近的报告估计,到2020年前,市场上将有300万至500万辆48V系统车辆。

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