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宽禁带技术促成未来的太阳能发电方案

由  Brandon Becker 发布  - 2020-02-06 

我们持续面临全球气候形势的恶劣现状-我们的新闻推送充斥着火灾、洪水和极端天气,所有这些都归因于气候变化。

形势显然令人担忧,个人、政府和游说团体都在倡导大幅减少化石燃料使用——或者完全禁止使用。

但如果没有适当技术能够高效地提供能源且价格与现有技术价格相当,许多政府支持的推行太阳能发电的举措就不可能完全成功。

太阳能发电本质上是直流(DC)技术,需要逆变器(DC-AC)来发电。一旦有了交流电(AC),所有的主要设备都可使用这电能,即使是小型设备如家居设备也可连接到电网,从而实现电力共享。

1:典型太阳能发电逆变器系统框图

在太阳能发电的早期,逆变器往往是集中的,能力超过100 kW。但最近这趋势已改变,因为运营商更倾向使用低于100 kW的逆变器串。在所有情况下,该架构都类似于一个DC -DC升压转换器,用于增加光伏电池板的电压,以及一个DC - AC逆变器,以本地电网的恰当频率(50 Hz / 60 Hz)产生交流电压。该系统配有保护电路和精密的监视/控制,确保在任何时候都达到最佳能效。

即使太阳能是无尽的,但能效仍是太阳能系统的关键考虑因素。任何低效的系统都会产生不想要的热量,必须将其从系统中移除。这必然涉及热管理措施,包括散热器和/或风扇,这每一个都会增加系统的尺寸、复杂性、重量和成本。

虽然选择的逆变器拓扑结构会影响能效,但主要的半导体开关器件(MOSFET、IGBT和二极管)对于实现现代太阳能发电应用所需的能效绝对至关重要。自发明了半导体器件以来,硅(Si)一直是主要使用的材料,通过多年的不断创新,该技术已达到了几乎不可能进一步提升的地步。

因此,主要的半导体制造商如安森美半导体,一直在探索其他材料来构建未来的开关器件。所谓宽带隙(WBG材料,包括氮化镓(GaN)和碳化硅(SiC),已成为关注的焦点,因为它们的性能非常适合开发高效的半导体器件。

WBG材料的固有电阻比基于Si的器件低,从而减少了连续导电时的静电损耗。另外,随着开关频率的提高,磁性元器件的尺寸减小,WBG技术进一步提高了能效,因为门极电荷比硅减少,动态损耗也降低。

2:宽禁带优势

如果有因素减缓了WBG的采用,那么从过去而言这因素就是成本。但是,粗略的分析将使工程师得出错误的结论,因为半导体器件通常仅占电力系统成本的10%,而电感器和电容器约占90%。由于SiC器件增强的性能,可使电容器和电感器的值降低约75%,从而极大地降低了成本和尺寸。

3:当以80kHz工作时,典型的SiC二极管的损耗比硅二极管小73%

如果考虑到无源元器件的节省,尽管SiC器件的成本较高,但基于WBG的电源方案的总成本现在相当于或略低于Si基方案。

安森美半导体提供大量SiC MOSFET产品组合,包括900V如NTHL020N090SC1和1200V如NTHL040N120SC1,导通电阻(RDS(ON))仅40 mOhm,低门极电荷(QG)和电容值可降低电磁干扰(EMI)并允许使用更快的开关频率,提供了上述优势。SiC肖特基二极管如650V和1200V。 30A FFSH30120A就是个例子,它没有反向恢复,具有电流不受温度影响的开关特性,因此非常适用于先进的太阳能发电应用。

随着行业已达到这一关键的转折点,WBG器件将真正成为太阳能发电的光明未来的促成者,有助于实现能效更高的地球,应对气候变化的影响。

立即了解有关太阳能逆变器方案的更多信息,以及在太阳能和可再生能源应用中利用宽禁带如何有益于您的设计!

标签:Networking and Telecommunications, Networking and Telecommunications, Automotive, MOSFET, Industrial, Power Supply
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