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6GHz Wi-Fi时代的自适应MIMO

由  ON Semiconductor 发布  - 2019-09-02 

2018年,美国联邦通信委员会(FCC)发布了一份规章拟制通知(NPRM),提议开放在5.925GHz至7.125GHz之间达1.2GHz的频谱,供免授权使用。新开放的频谱有望提供目前2.4GHz和5GHz支持频谱的两倍以上。附加通道不仅支持高速如10Gbps,还支持密集环境中如多住户单元(MDU)的更多用户。很明显,6GHz有可能开启Wi-Fi计算的新时代。FCC的NPRM表明,到2020年底,大多数账户都会最终合法化。其他国家,如欧盟和亚洲的国家,最有可能在2022年也将采用自己的6GHz。

毫无疑问,启动6GHz是显著的进步,但将它用于我们所拥有和喜爱的日常设备所采用的机制有点复杂。我们可以借鉴采用Wi-Fi 5(802.11ac)技术的先进经验。官方802.11ac规范由IEEE于2013年12月发布。截至2016年底,苹果的所有iPhone产品和大部分三星智能手机都完全采用802.11ac。 2016年,新手机出货量超过14亿部,其中大部分(超过10亿部)都采用802.11ac(图1)。如果我们将此经验应用于Wi-Fi 6(802.11ax)6GHz客户端设备,那么从IEEE发布802.11ax规范(2020年6月)到有超过10亿部新的Wi-Fi 6客户端设备可能需要约3年时间,即在2023年中。但是,因为2020年底增加6GHz监管批准,这个时间表很可能会略微延长到2023年底,即2020年底FCC完全合法化6GHz运营的三年后。(图2)。

1. 客户端设备采用Wi-Fi 5 (802.11ac)

2. 采用Wi-Fi 66GHz的总时间表

随着6GHz的启动,假设下一代Wi-Fi 6基础设施设备如2020年发布的家庭网关和接入点都将采用固定架构设计,一个固定的4x4无线电专用于 3个频段中的每一个:2.4GHz,5GHz和6GHz(图3),这可能看似简单易行。如前所述,由于在2023年底之前只有少量的6GHz Wi-Fi 6客户端,因此用于任何专用6GHz电路的网关方案基本在很长一段时间内将不会使用。这意味着与这些新的6GHz组件相关的成本和空间将基本上浪费在网关内部。但是,服务提供商必须生成和部署前瞻性网关,因为它们的替换周期往往比客户端设备更长。这两种竞争动态对正考虑在其路线图中加入支持6GHz Wi-Fi 6的服务提供商是个有趣的挑战。

3. 固定的三频4x4设计

可采用称为自适应MIMO(多输入多输出)的技术找到潜在的方案。自适应MIMO首先由Quantenna(现已成为安森美半导体的一部分) 于2018年6月推出,用于动态的基础设施设备,根据终端用户的家庭环境,如客户端设备的数量、邻居的干扰量和其他因素等,在一个8x8无线电和两个4x4无线电之间改变其5GHz MIMO配置。这项技术甚至可实现更强大的方案,因为它可以解决Wi-Fi 6网关6GHz市场采用的复杂问题。自适应6GHz MIMO意味着一个硬件设计可以在一个8x8 5GHz加一个4x4 2.4GHz无线电之间进行自适应(配置1),和三个4x4无线电,每个无线电运行在6GHz,5GHz和2.4GHz(配置2)。首次部署此设计时,设备基础设施将反映配置1。到2023年底,随着市场采用Wi-Fi 6 6GHz,基础设施设备将按配置2运行。此配置可使用智能分析进行控制,这决定了网络中6GHz Wi-Fi 6客户端的普及率。值得注意的是,自适应MIMO设计采用了新的、独特的、无损耗的5至7GHz前端模块(FEM)。

4. 自适应8x8设计

6GHz的推出将为Wi-Fi 6设备带来新的性能和可用性。虽然它对即将推出的Wi-Fi 6网络提供显著的改进,但它也能够显著改变无线环境。下一代Wi-Fi标准IEEE 802.11be将在基础设施设备上使用高达16x16 MIMO配置,以在6GHz频段建立320MHz信道。这些发展的结合可以将速度提高到40Gbps以上,提供前所未见的范围的性能,并开创了先进的Wi-Fi应用的新时代。但是,要实现这,基础设施设备必须采用智能且经济高效的架构,例如自适应MIMO。

详情请访问www.quantenna.com

 

标签:IoT, Internet of Things, Portable and Wireless, Networking and Telecommunications
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